Endocrinology Research: Parts Of The Endocrine System
The endocrine system of a human body is made up of a group of 5 glands that together work towards the working of the harmonic working. The various parts are explained below.
The Pituitary Gland
The pituitary gland is a tiny part that can be divided into 2 sub parts namely the posterior lobe and the anterior lobe. It is the work of the posterior lobe to release the hormone named Antidiuretic which is responsible for the keeping the water levels of the body under control. This is done by affecting the kidneys thereby regulating the excretion in form of urine. The second hormone released is the oxytocin. This is primarily responsible for helping during the time of labor for females.
The Anterior lobe is the one responsible for regulating the working of the adrenals, the reproductive and the thyroid glands. It produces the growth hormone stimulating the growth of the bones and the muscles of the body, the thyrotropin which stimulates the production of thyroid hormones and the prolactin which induces milk production in the female's mammary glands.
The hypothalamus is present in the lower central region of the brain. This is actually a collected combination of a group of specialized cells and provides the connectivity between the nervous with the endocrine system. The hypothalamus functions by controlling the pituitary glands. This is done the nerves which produce chemicals responsible for suppressing or stimulating the hormone secretions from the pituitary glands.
The Parathyroid and Thyroids
Parathyroids are attached to the thyroids and release the parathyroid hormones with the main motive of regulating the calcium levels in the body. The throid releases the thyroxine and the trilodothronine which together constitute the thyroid hormones. It is their responsibility to control the amount of energy levels released from the burning of food. The chemical reactions taking place in the body are directly proportional to the level of the thyroid hormones produced in the body.
The Adrenal Glands
The adrenal glands are present near the kidney. They are two in number, both performing different functions. The inner part is the adrenal medulla, this produces a hormone called catecholamines. The effect of it is on the blood pressure and the heart beat rate. The outer part, known as the adrenal cortex produces corticosteroids that keep a tab on the water and the salt balance maintained in the body. They affect the body during metabolism, stress and immunity problems.
The Pineal Gland and Gonads
Located in the center of the brain, the pineal glands secrete melatonin that regulates the sleeping cycle whereas the gonads are the ones that produce the hormones to induce sexual arousal. The location varies in the males from the females where it is located in the scrotum compared to the pelvis in the females. The secretion is of androgens in the males and that of estrogen and progesterone in the females. It is these hormones that are responsible for the appearance of the secondary sexual characteristics. In males these are the facial hair and deepening of voice whereas in females it is enlargement of the mammary glands.